“Regulating the research enterprise: international norms and the right to bodily integrity in human…
George Annas: (from the article)
” In Orwell’s view, the key to a successful totalitarian system is
abolishing truth as objective reality … The party’s slogans in
1984 illustrate the concept of doublethink: “War is Peace, Freedom
is Slavery, and Ignorance is Strength.” We tend to recognize these
pairings as nonsensical, and think we could never be victims of
such blatant propagandistic sloganeering. But even a cursory
history of modern human experimentation demonstrates the
pervasiveness of three doublespeak concepts: experimentation is
treatment, researchers are physicians, and subjects are patients.
Indeed, we have encapsulated all three into a “newspeak” word,
“therapeutic research” (although we retain a space between the c
and the r).
This doublespeak allows U.S. to use double standards as they suit
our purposes. It permits U.S. to treat truth as negotiable and then
allows U.S. to act irrationally. We act in the best interest of
patients. The experiment is justified as therapy or potential
therapy. But if the experiment produces harm, it was after all,
only an experiment and thus nonetheless a “success” because we
learned something from it that could benefit others. It should be
of only slight comfort that the term therapeutic research was not
invented by a totalitarian government, bat rather by physicians who
were responding to a legal condemnation of experiments performed
under the authority of a totalitarian government–the Nuremberg
thereputic misconception-the idea that hsr is somehow thereputic instead of exprimental
there is a distinctly different relationship patient/doctor and researcher/subject-more of a business deal
“The National Institutes of Health’s (NIH) budget hovers just under $30 billion, and that of the pharmaceutical companies for research is about twice NIH’s. This year more than 15 million persons will be recruited into research protocols. (10)”
so 90 billion dollars for HSR? bias?
Using the numbers 90, 9 zeros divide by 20, 6 zeros, we arrive at $4,500 per subject for the budget of NIH and pharaceutical companies for HSR.
15 million hsr subjects source
but since ahrp that figure could be biased, no other source
conditions that could affect this number are economic factors and war
*another source mentions 20 million HSR subjects
query -intergenerational genetic studies term?prize research study?Criteria?
query-cost of research VS profitability?
Worth of each subject?
query-3rd gen subject, sociostress tailering?
query-if 1/300 pop. than a city of 350,000 would have about 1,150 subjects interconnect 501K,F.B.O. comm.health, comm safe.,reflective number elsewhere?
self aware subjects mega picture?
interconnect above sub. newt. program?
with a budget of $ 5,175,000 for HSR
“Of the norms said to be international law, only the ICCPR, art. 7. has status as law. The Nuremberg Code, the Declaration of Helsinki, the CIOMS Code, the Belmont Report and other similar documents on their face only provide ethical standards and none of them are implemented as legal norms in any legal document.”
14 amend as well, possibly
the common rule-applied only to fed grant research sometimes exempt, private irbs are exempt