“Human Subjects’ Protections”

“The first paradigm, characterized as one of researcher paternalism, was one in which few checks and balances were built into the system of clinical research because research was conducted by physicians- who were trusted to be committed to the safety and welfare of their patients. Scandals and abuses shifted this paradigm to one emphasizing protection of participants, especially the vulnerable, from the risks and burdens of research. In the 1980s and 1990s, largely spurred by AIDS activism, the paradigm shifted again to emphasize individual autonomy in accepting risks, and demanding the benefits of access to research. A fourth paradigm emphasizing the ethical importance of community partnership has evolved along with an increase in international research and genetics research. This paper appears in the Cambridge Quarterly (Emanuel, Grady 2006).”
-NIH Clinical Center
keyword “research paternalism”

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