some definition(s)

“Clinical research is a branch of medical science that determines the safety and effectiveness of medications, devices, diagnostic products and treatment regimens intended for human use. These may be used for prevention, treatment, diagnosis or for relieving symptoms of a disease. Clinical Research is different than clinical practice. In clinical practice, one used established treatments while in clinical research evidence is collected to establish a treatment.”
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clinical_science
Translational science:
“Translational science is a cross disciplinary, scientific research that is motivated by the need for practical applications that help people. The term is used mostly in the health sciences and refers to real-time translation of bench science, conducted only in a lab, to bedside clinical practice or dissemination to population-based community interventions.[1]

In U.S., the National Institutes of Health have implemented a major national initiative to leverage existing academic health center infrastructure through the Clinical and Translational Science Awards. National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) was established on December 23, 2011.[2]

The industry and academic interactions to promote translational science initiatives has been carried out by various global centres such as European Commission, Glaxo Smithkline and Novartis institute for Biomedical Research in European Union, [3] the University of California, Davis in the U.S., [4] the translational research cells at National Institute of Virology, National Institute of Nutrition under Indian Council of Medical Research and Biotech Consortium India Limited in India.”
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Translational_science

“Translational Research–What Does It Mean?”-Monday, April 22, 2013
Hooked: Ethics, Medicine, and Pharma

http://brodyhooked.blogspot.com/2013/04/translational-research-what-does-it-mean.html

“The occasion for these musings is Dr. Barney Carroll’s post over at our friends, Health Care Renewal”:
http://hcrenewal.blogspot.com/2013/04/walk-walk-for-some-time-jeremiad-theme.html

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