Cuba’s Special Period

“The Special Period in Time of Peace (Spanish: Período especial) in Cuba was an extended period of economic crisis that began in 1991 after the dissolution of the Soviet Union and, by extension, the Comecon. The economic depression of the Special Period was at its most severe in the early to mid-1990s before slightly declining in severity towards the end of the decade. It was defined primarily by the severe shortages of hydrocarbon energy resources in the form of gasoline, diesel, and other petroleum derivatives that occurred upon the implosion of economic agreements between the petroleum-rich Soviet Union and Cuba. The period radically transformed Cuban society and the economy, as it necessitated the successful introduction of sustainable agriculture, decreased use of automobiles, and overhauled industry, health, and diet countrywide. People were forced to live without many goods they had become used to.”
more:
“The early stages of the Special Period were defined by a general breakdown in transportation and agricultural sectors, fertilizer and pesticide stocks (both of those being manufactured primarily from petroleum derivatives), and widespread food shortages. Australian and other permaculturists arriving in Cuba at the time began to distribute aid and taught their techniques to locals, who soon implemented them in Cuban fields, raised beds, and urban rooftops across the nation. Organic agriculture was soon after mandated by the Cuban government, supplanting the old industrialized form of agriculture Cubans had grown accustomed to. Relocalization, permaculture, and innovative modes of mass transit had to be rapidly developed. For a time, waiting for a bus could take three hours, power outages could last up to sixteen hours, food consumption was cut back to one-fifth of their previous levels and the average Cuban lost about nine kilograms (twenty pounds)”
Agriculture
“Cuba’s history of colonization included deforestation and overuse of its agricultural land. Before the crisis, Cuba used more pesticides than the U.S.. Much of their land was so damaged (de-mineralized and almost sand-like) that it took three to five years of intensely “healing” the soil with amendments, compost, “green manure”, and practices such as crop rotation and inter-planting (mixed crops grown in same plot) to return it to a healthy state. Bio-fertilizers and bio-pesticides have replaced most chemicals. Today, 80% of Cuba’s produce is organically grown, successes that those interviewed in the documentary The Power of Community: How Cuba Survived Peak Oil were very proud of”
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special_Period

“Organopónicos are a system of urban organic gardens in Cuba. They often consist of low-level concrete walls filled with organic matter and soil, with lines of drip irrigation laid on the surface of the growing media. Organopónicos are a labour-intensive form of local agriculture.”
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organoponico

” Cuba’s Renewable Energy: Gov. Missing Out On Solar, Wind Power Opportunities, Experts Say”
Huff Post- | By ANDREA RODRIGUEZ Posted: 07/05/2012 10:58 am Updated: 07/05/2012 3:13 pm
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/07/05/cuba-renewable-energy-alternative-solar-wind_n_1651216.html

“Top level domain: .cu

A special permit is required to use the Internet. Access to the Internet is heavily controlled, and all e-mails are closely monitored.[8][9]

The Cuban authorities have called the Internet “the great disease of 21st century” due to ‘counter-revolutionary’ information being available on a number of websites, some of which are official news sites.[10] As a result of computer ownership bans, computer ownership rates were among the world’s lowest.[9] However, since buying a computer was legalized in 2007, the ownership of computers in Cuba soared, dramatically increasing the number of Internet users. But, the rates still remain quite low, partially due to the high costs of systems and Internet usage per hour in contrast to the average monthly wage”
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Telecommunications_in_Cuba#Internet

Advertisements
This entry was posted in Uncategorized. Bookmark the permalink.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s